shackleton's captain wikipedia

Earlier, the lifeboats had been named after the expedition's three chief financial sponsors: James Caird, Dudley Docker and Stancomb Wills. [25] A temporary crewman was Sir Daniel Gooch, grandson of the renowned railway pioneer Daniel Gooch, who stepped in to help Shackleton as a dog handler at the last moment and signed up for an able seaman's pay. [66] The final two teams were shot on 2 April, by which time their meat was a welcome addition to the rations. Point Wild on Elephant Island is named after Frank Wild; a monument dedicated to the Chilean captain Luis Pardo, who rescued him and his men, now stands at the site. Bad weather forced the ship to shelter in the lee of a stranded iceberg. Problems quickly arose, as the condition of the sea ice around them worsened. Angie Butler (2011). They were above Possession Bay, which meant they would need to move eastward to reach Stromness. [35] Two days later, Shackleton was disconcerted to encounter pack ice as far north as 57° 26′S,[37] forcing the ship to manoeuvre. He married for the second time on 18 March 1931. When Shackleton himself finally arrived in England on 29 May 1917, after a short American lecture tour, his return was barely noticed. [45] However, as winter set in the speed of the drift increased, and the condition of the surrounding ice changed. [65] The crew put up their tents and settled into what Shackleton called "Patience Camp", which would be their home for more than three months. Wild led a brief cruise which brought them into sight of Elephant Island. After problems arose in identifying this glacier, a nearby ice rise was renamed the McDonald Ice Rumples. [1], From 1921 to 1922, Wild was second-in-command of the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition, a poorly equipped expedition with no clear plan, and a small ship, the Quest. Next he was involved in railway construction and for a time had some success with a contract to extend the South African railway to the border with Swaziland. The set comprises eight stamps in four se-tenant pairs with denominations of 60, 70 and 90 pence, and £1.15. According to Hurley the surface became "a labyrinth of hummocks and ridges", in which barely a square yard was smooth. [1] The expedition failed to accomplish this objective, but became recognized instead as an epic feat of endurance. Shackleton's firm remonstrance finally brought the carpenter to heel, but the incident was never forgotten. By 1875, the Wild family had moved from Skelton to Stickford in Lincolnshire, and in late 1880 moved again to Wheldrake near York.[3]. [8] The first significant encouragement came in December 1913, when the Government offered him £10,000, provided he could raise an equivalent amount from private sources. From there, Shackleton was eventually able to mount a rescue of the men waiting on Elephant Island and bring them home without loss of life. Conceived by Sir Ernest Shackleton, the expedition was an attempt to make the first land crossing of the Antarctic continent. After ten days of inactivity, the ship's fires were banked to save fuel. [78] Shackleton took supplies for only four weeks, knowing that if land had not been reached within that time the boat would be lost. A well written book by the captain of the Endurance, Frank Worsley, which covers, day-to-day, the epic journey of the James Caird over the storm invested South Atlantic in order to save the survivors of Shackleton's Antarctic expedition. Shackleton died of a heart attack on South Georgia during the expedition, and Wild took over command and completed the journey, combating unfavourable weather to Elephant Island and along the Antarctic coast.[1]. The seas were open, and the ship was able to approach close to the island, in thick fog. [101], As the weeks extended well beyond his initial optimistic forecast, Wild established and maintained routines and activities to relieve the tedium. On 11 December 1911, a German expedition under Wilhelm Filchner had sailed from South Georgia, intending to penetrate deep into the Weddell Sea and establishing a base from which he would cross the continent to the Ross Sea. Endurance became beset in the ice of the Weddell Sea before reaching Vahsel Bay, and drifted northward, held in the pack ice, throughout the Antarctic winter of 1915. Moresby was born in Allerford, Somerset, England, the son of Eliza Louisa and Admiral of the Fleet Sir Fairfax Moresby. Shackleton begged the Chilean Government to lend him Yelcho, a small steam tug that had assisted Emma during the previous attempt. However, Shackleton considered it too far north of Vahsel Bay for a landing, "except under pressure of necessity"—a decision he would later regret. It would be at least four months before spring brought the chance of an opening of the ice, and there was no certainty that Endurance would break free in time to attempt a return to the Vahsel Bay area. His first thought was for Paulet Island, where he knew there was a hut containing a substantial food depot, because he had ordered it 12 years earlier while organising relief for Otto Nordenskjöld's stranded Swedish expedition. Ernest Shackleton, Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who attempted to reach the South Pole. Butler said, "His ashes will now be where they were always supposed to be. [96] Shackleton later named a glacier after McDonald on the Brunt Ice Shelf in the Weddell Sea. On instructions from Shackleton, McNish immediately set about adapting the James Caird, improvising tools and materials. During this relative lull the ship drifted into the area where, in 1823, Captain Benjamin Morrell of the sealer Wasp reported seeing a coastline which he identified as "New South Greenland". Again the pack thwarted them. He was informed by the Admiralty that nothing was available before October, which in his view was too late. Aurora was blown from her moorings during a gale and was unable to return, leaving the shore party marooned without proper supplies or equipment. The Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition of 1914–1917 is considered to be the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. [72] He had now decided they would try, if possible, to reach the distant Deception Island because a small wooden church had been reportedly erected for the benefit of whalers. Finally, on 10 January 1917, the repaired and refitted Aurora, whose departure from New Zealand had been delayed by lack of money, arrived to transport them back to civilization;. Shackleton did not at this stage abandon all hope of breaking free, but was now contemplating the "possibility of having to spend a winter in the inhospitable arms of the pack". [18] Shackleton changed her name to Endurance, reflecting his family motto "By endurance we conquer". Cape Wild and Point Wild on Elephant Island in the Antarctic are named after him, as is Mount Wild in the Queen Alexandra Range and Mount Wild in Graham Land. Bruce generously allowed Shackleton to adopt his plans,[9] although the eventual scheme announced by Shackleton owed little to Bruce. According to the Daily Chronicle's correspondent Ernest Perris, a cable intended for Macintosh was never sent. They agreed; on 25 August, Yelcho—captained by Luis Pardo–set out for Elephant Island. He stood shoulder to shoulder with Shackleton. After the darkness of the Antarctic winter, the return of the sun was a major event in 1915. "The Quest for Frank Wild". [8] His chosen method of fund-raising was to solicit contributions from wealthy backers, and he had begun this process early in 1913, with little initial success. In this new venture he proposed to sail to the Weddell Sea and to land a shore party near Vahsel Bay, in preparation for a transcontinental march via the South Pole to the Ross Sea. Honour and recognition in event of success." Unabled to return to McMurdo Sound, she remained captive in the ice for nine months until on 12 February 1916, having travelled a distance of around 1,600 miles (2,600 km), she reached open water and limped to New Zealand. Shackleton commented: "I had been prepared for evil conditions in the Weddell Sea, but had hoped that the pack would be loose. Wild's younger brother Ernest Wild also went on to become a Royal Naval seaman and Antarctic explorer, receiving a Polar Medal. They are available from the Falkland Islands Philatelic Bureau. The film gives us an accurate, rather than a popular sensationalist account, of the adventure in which Shackleton is revealed to be not as big a hero as he has been made out to be. [20] Shackleton had, however, realised the revenue-earning potential of the expedition. This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 14:10. He was perhaps best known for his 1914–16 expedition, in which his ship, Endurance, was crushed by pack ice and the crew endured months of hardship before being rescued. The family came from Skelton close to Marton, birthplace of Captain James Cook, to whom the family claimed ancestry through Mrs. Wild;[2][3] her father was Robert Cook, who claimed to be a grandson of the great explorer. [67] Meanwhile, the rate of drift became erratic; after being held at around 67° for several weeks, at the end of January there was a series of rapid north-eastward movements which, by 17 March, brought Patience Camp to the latitude of Paulet Island, but 60 miles (97 km) to its east. A supporting group, the Ross Sea party, would meanwhile establish camp in McMurdo Sound, and from there lay a series of supply depots across the Ross Ice Shelf to the foot of the Beardmore Glacier. [13], In February 1914, The New York Times reported that playwright J. M. Barrie—a close friend of Captain Scott—had confidentially donated $50,000 (about £10,000). [32], The scientific staff of six accompanying Endurance comprised the two surgeons, Alexander Macklin and James McIlroy; a geologist, James Wordie; a biologist, Robert Clark; a physicist Reginald W. James; and Leonard Hussey, a meteorologist who would eventually edit Shackleton's expedition account South. 1. Several others were severely wounded, and many received decorations for gallantry. Frank Worsley is best known as the captain of the Endurance on Shackleton's ill-fated Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition in 1914, but he led a full and very interesting life that included searching for treasure and sinking a German U-boat during WWI. [80][81] Frank Wild was to be left in charge of the Elephant Island party, with instructions to make for Deception Island the following spring, should Shackleton not return. [71], The end of Patience Camp was signalled on the evening of 8 April, when the floe suddenly split. After Amundsen's South Pole expedition in 1911, this crossing remained, in Shackleton's words, the "one great main object of Antarctic journeyings". Eventually the ship was crushed and sunk, stranding its 28-man complement on the ice. [112] On 8 May 1916, Mackintosh and Victor Hayward decided to walk across the unstable sea ice to Cape Evans, were caught in a blizzard, and were not seen again. In April 2012, BBC2 broadcast "Frank Wild: Antarctica's Forgotten Hero", presented by Paul Rose, which placed Wild's achievements alongside those of Shackleton and the other explorers of the Heroic Age. [49] This danger passed, and the succeeding weeks were quiet. [5] In late 1912 Filchner returned to South Georgia, having failed to land and set up his base. [43], Shackleton was aware of the recent example of Wilhelm Filchner's ship, the Deutschland, which had become icebound in the same vicinity three years earlier. [3] The next work, he said, would be "a transcontinental journey from sea to sea, crossing the pole". If the party was to return to civilization it would be necessary to summon help. "[23], Eventually the crews for the two arms of the expedition were trimmed down to 28 apiece, including William Bakewell, who joined the ship in Buenos Aires, his friend Perce Blackborow who stowed away when his application was turned down,[24] and several last-minute appointments made to the Ross Sea party in Australia. Frank Arthur Worsley DSO OBE RD (22 February 1872 – 1 February 1943) was a New Zealand sailor and explorer who served on Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–1916, as captain of the Endurance. He had also been awarded the Civil List pension from Downing Street. On reaching Port Stanley, Shackleton informed London by cable of his whereabouts, and requested that a suitable vessel be sent south for the rescue operation. The one with the year on the ice, and the whole deal where a malnourished and dyssentry-ridden Ernest Shackleton and two other guys ultimately rode in a dinky open lifeboat across 800 miles of stormy ocean, landed on an inhabited island but on the wrong … [14] Lord Rosebery, who had previously expressed his lack of interest in polar expeditions, gave £50. He was buried on the island. [58] The company set out on 30 October 1915, with two of the ship's lifeboats carried on sledges. The position at abandonment was 69° 05′S, 51° 30′W. Another whaling station was known to be at Prince Olav Harbour, just six miles (10 km) north of Peggotty Camp over easier terrain, but as far as the party was aware, this was only inhabited during the summer months. [38], Endurance's progress was frustratingly slow, until, on 22 December, leads opened up and the ship was able to continue steadily southward. [31] After pressing his case, Shackleton was given one officer from the Royal Marines, Captain Thomas Orde-Lees, who was Superintendent of Physical Training at the Marines training depot. General Information . [55] Other possibilities were Snow Hill Island, which had been Nordenskiöld's winter quarters and which was believed to contain a stock of emergency supplies,[56] or Robertson Island. Wild died of pneumonia and diabetes in Klerksdorp on 19 August 1939, aged 66 years. Hurley and Macklin were sent back to Ocean Camp to recover food that had been left there to lighten the sledging teams’ burden. To captain Endurance Shackleton had wanted John King Davis, who had commanded Aurora during the Australian Antarctic Expedition. 1, which started south on 10 June. [21], According to legend, Shackleton posted an advertisement in a London paper, stating: "Men wanted for hazardous journey. He bought some land in the Mkuzi valley in Zululand where he tried to grow cotton. [3] Here his father was appointed clerk of the Eversholt Parochial Charity at Woburn. [41] On 17 January, the ship reached a latitude of 76° 27′S, where land was faintly discernible. [69] They were too far north for Snow Hill or Paulet Island to be accessible, and Shackleton's chief hopes were now fixed on two remaining small islands at the northern extremity of Graham Land. [5] However, his reports of possible landing sites in Vahsel Bay, at around 78° latitude, were noted by Shackleton, and incorporated into his developing expedition plans. He was cremated on 23 August 1939 at Braamfontein Cemetery in Johannesburg. [114] Shackleton accompanied the ship as a supernumerary officer, having been denied command by the governments of New Zealand, Australia and Great Britain who had jointly organised and financed the Ross Sea party's relief. Some who left Britain for Australia to join Aurora resigned before it departed for the Ross Sea, and a full complement of crew was in doubt until the last minute. He joined the navy at an early age as a Volunteer 1st Class in HMS Victor, and rose to be in charge of the 1,031 ton paddle steamer cruiser HMS Basilisk in which he made hydrological surveys around eastern New Guinea. Wild was awarded the CBE in the New Year Honours List of 1920 and in May 1923 he was made a Freeman of the City of London. Davis refused, thinking the enterprise was "foredoomed",[18] so the appointment went to Frank Worsley, who claimed to have applied to the expedition after learning of it in a dream. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was an Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic. RMG F6220.tiff 3,800 × 3,388; 36.83 MB On 2 February 1916, Shackleton sent a larger party back, to recover the third lifeboat. For more than four months, from 24 April to 30 August 1916, during the Antarctic winter, Wild and his crew waited on Elephant Island, surviving on a diet of seal, penguin and seaweed. [77], Elephant Island was remote, uninhabited, and rarely visited by whalers or any other ships. Wild's family next moved to the village of Eversholt in Bedfordshire. [39] Further delays then slowed progress after the turn of the year, before a lengthy run south during 7–10 January 1915 brought them close to the 100-foot (30 m) ice walls which guarded the Antarctic coastal region of Coats Land. ; In 1908–1909, he was a member of Shackleton's Nimrod Expedition and was a member of the team that crossed the Ross Barrier and Beardmore Glacier at a record latitude of 88º23'S. On 24 October 1922, Wild married Vera Alexandra Altman (née Bogosoff), the widow of a tea planter of Borneo, at Reading Registry Office. On 25 November 2011, the Government of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands issued a set of commemorative postage stamps honouring Frank Wild along with other Antarctic pioneers. "In the meantime", he wrote, "we must wait". After the war, Wild went to South Africa, where he farmed in British Nyasaland with Francis Bickerton and James McIlroy, two former Antarctic comrades. Read Free Shackletons Journey of a heart attack off South Georgia. [113] The survivors eventually reached Cape Evans, but then had to wait for eight further months. [36], After a month-long halt in the Grytviken whaling station, Endurance departed for the Antarctic on 5 December. The Discovery Expedition of 1901–1904, known officially as the British National Antarctic Expedition, was the first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since the voyage of James Clark Ross sixty years earlier (1839-1843). Here Shackleton, who had travelled on a faster ship, rejoined the expedition. [28] Wild had just returned from Mawson's Australian Antarctic Expedition. The crew would have been doomed were it not for the exceptional seamanship and navigational talents of … [82], The 22.5-foot (6.9 m) James Caird was launched on 24 April 1916. Frequently the boats were tied to floes, or dragged up onto them, while the men camped and waited for conditions to improve. [108], On 7 May, Aurora, anchored at the party's Cape Evans headquarters, was wrenched from her moorings during a gale and carried with drifting ice far out to sea. [111] On the return journey from the glacier the party was attacked by scurvy; Arnold Spencer-Smith, the expedition's chaplain and photographer, collapsed and died on the ice. With Kenneth Branagh, John Grillo, Paul Humpoletz, Phoebe Nicholls. [94], It took four attempts before Shackleton was able to return to Elephant Island to rescue the party stranded there. [13] The Royal Geographical Society, from which he had expected nothing, gave him £1,000—according to Huntford, Shackleton, in a grand gesture, advised them that he would only need to take up half of this sum. They were thus able to begin the second season's depot-laying on schedule, in September 1915. The success of the voyage depended on the pin-point accuracy of Worsley's navigation, using observations that would have to be made in the most unfavourable of conditions. [72], At 1 p.m. on 9 April, the Dudley Docker was launched, and an hour later all three boats were away. Next day the James Caird rounded the eastern point of the island, to reach the northern lee shore, and discovered a narrow shingle beach. Shackleton's Captain reveals the truth behind the spectacular survival of all the crew and shows how one man's extra-ordinary skill and unsung heroism made it possible; Frank Worsley, Captain of the expedition ship, Endurance. [35] On 26 October, the ship sailed for the South Atlantic, arriving in South Georgia on 5 November. Its advantage was that it was sometimes visited by whalers, and might contain provisions, whereas Clarence Island and Elephant Island were desolate and unvisited. Wild's marriage to Vera was in difficulty shortly after arriving in Zululand and she asked for a divorce, which became absolute on 27 December 1928. [10], Shackleton called his new expedition the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, because he felt that "not only the people of these islands, but our kinsmen in all the lands under the Union Jack will be willing to assist towards the carrying out of the ... programme of exploration. He subsidised his meagre income by giving the occasional lecture on the Endurance expedition. [40] On 15 January, Endurance came abreast of a great glacier, the edge of which formed a bay which appeared a good landing place. The true story of Shackleton's 1914 Endurance expedition to the South Pole, and his epic struggle to lead his twenty-eight man crew to safety after his ship was crushed in the pack ice. With Shackleton’s great leadership skills, and Frank’s cool head and experience, they were able to handle almost anything that the Antarctic could throw at them."[9]. Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands was closer than South Georgia, but could not be reached, as this would require sailing against the strong prevailing winds. With time running out, contributions were eventually secured during the first half of 1914. This would act as the Ross Sea party's vessel. The entire journey took 98 days. [5], In February and March, the rate of drift was very slow. After Amundsen's South Pole expedition in 1911, this crossing remained, in Shackleton's words, the "one great main object of Antarctic journeyings". [102] Concerts were held on Saturdays and anniversaries were celebrated, but there were growing feelings of despondency as time passed with no sign of the ship. [8] Of Wild, Paul Rose has said: "He was a true great. However, he had little respect for Frost; that and the demands of building the house in an extremely remote part of the country caused him to return to Johannesburg. Ernest Shackleton - Wikipedia An engrossing first person narrative by one of the 6 men that accomplished the amazing, hair-raising 800 mile voyage from Elephant Island to S. Georgia Island Page 5/29 Orde-Lees wrote: "We shall have to eat the one who dies first [...] there's many a true word said in jest". Gran was evasive, and Rosebery blunt: "I have never been able to care one farthing about the Poles". Surface became `` a labyrinth of hummocks and ridges '', Shackleton now land! October 1915, Endurance, reflecting his family motto `` by Endurance we conquer.. Waited for conditions to improve shackleton's captain wikipedia was roughly 26 miles ( 153 km ) due north of their position 25. 68 ] he argued that Admiralty law had lapsed since Endurance 's sinking, and the ship transcontinental! The estimate. [ 7 ] ] of Wild was unveiled in his hometown of Skelton-in-Cleveland priority! Had previously expressed his lack of interest in Polar expeditions, gave £50 soon afterwards, the return of ship... Wrote: `` he was aware that others were in the following Antarctic spring recover food that had assisted during! Reach Stromness London on 17 September 1921 return of the Antarctic Shackleton.... Rigged, but the incident was never forgotten Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition of.! Were always supposed to be eventual scheme announced by Shackleton owed little Bruce! 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